analogy between current flow and water flow

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As the back-pressure from the stretched rubber approaches the applied pressure, the current becomes less and less. The electric current used in homes and in most commerce is alternating current (AC), analogous to a flow of water in a pipe which rapidly sloshes back and forth. 1 0. charge Q is analogous to the number of cars. The mass and surface area of the wheel and its blades are analogous to inductance, and friction between its axle and the axle bearings corresponds to the resistance that accompanies any non-superconducting inductor.An alternative inductor model is simply a long pipe, perhaps coiled into a spiral for convenience. A pipe with flowing water is like a wire with flowing current, and a partial clog in the pipe is like a resistor in the circuit. 2 Answers. For some applications, the water analogy is … Thane Heins relates the advice of a professor "Our Motors and Generators Concepts professor in college always warned us students to stay away from the 'water' analogy which tends to lead us astray because it fails to take into account the magnetic field energy produced around all current bearing wires and especially the work this energy does when producing the counter-electromotive-torque/work produced inside all electric generators and the change in kinetic energy of the system this work performs when generators are placed on-load." The higher the pressure, the higher the flow, and vice-versa. For any circuit, fluid or electric, which has multiple branches and parallel elements, the flowrate through any cross-section must be the same. Drawing banks and pictures of cars is tedious, so as we continue, banks will be drawn using the battery symbol with the number of cells equal to the number of vaults. Fluid velocity and resistance of metals: As with water hoses, the carrier drift velocity in conductors is directly proportional to current. The electronic–hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) [1] is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor. The animation was written by David M. Harrison in April 2003. Ohm’s Law also makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the water-and-pipe analogy. Resistance in most electrical conductors is a linear function: as current increases, voltage drop increases proportionally (Ohm's Law). There is a close analogy between charge flowing around an electrical circuit and water flowing through a set of pipes. After struggling to understand what each property of electric currents meant, I found an analogy that related electric current to water flow. The hydraulic analogy can give a mistaken sense of understanding that will be exposed once a detailed description of electrical circuit theory is required. Resistance: In the analogy, resistance is represented by rough (bumpy) road. Voltage is water pressure. Mechanical system. An ideal voltage source (ideal battery) or ideal current source is a dynamic pump with feedback control. In this analogy, charge is represented by the water amount, voltage is repres… 1. The flow of the heat from one body to another can be considered similar to the flow of current in a conductor. Hydraulic analogy with horizontal water flow. Now, consider that the tube connected to the tank is very small, constricting the flow of water. It also requires that the principles can be transferred to the target (electrical) system. 173-177. Voltage or current source:  A dynamic pump with feedback control. I would recommend that you start with resistors which are modeled with sand filters. A transistor is a valve in which a diaphragm, controlled by a low-current signal (either constant current for a BJT or constant pressure for a FET), moves a plunger which affects the current through another section of pipe. Water flowing through pipes is pretty good mechanical system that is a lot like an electrical circuit. CMOS is a combination of two MOSFET transistors. Hydraulic systems are deceptively simple: the phenomenon of pump cavitation is a known, complex problem that few people outside of the fluid power or irrigation industries would understand. Since electric current is invisible and the processes in play in electronics are often difficult to demonstrate, the various electronic components are represented by hydraulic equivalents. Current Law and Flowrate. Student Section – Water Analogy to Electric Circuits Flow rate (Current) in a Series Circuit The flow rate (current) of water through the circuit can be detected with the flow meter (ammeter), which turns faster for a higher flow rate and slower for a lower flow rate. Water-flow analogy. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35.3 (2005): 326-338. [4], A slightly different paradigm is used in acoustics, where acoustic impedance is defined as a relationship between acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity. the flow of water the speed at which water flows the resistance to flow See answer sblackbear02 is waiting for your help. Two paradigms can be used to introduce the concept to students using pressure induced by gravity or by pumps. This is formalized in Kirchhoff's current law, which does not have an analogy to hydraulic systems, where the amount of the liquid is not usually constant. But water flow in a pipe and electric current in a wire are profoundly different physical phenomena, so the analogy must break down at some point. “The water in resovoirs A and B stands at different heights. Also, an accelerating electron will drag its neighbors along while attracting them, both because of magnetic forces. As described, the fluid flow conveys pressure fluctuations, but fluids do not reverse at high rates in hydraulic systems, which the above "low frequency" entry does accurately describe. In an analogy between water and electric current, water would correspond to charge. Answer to: In an analogy between traffic flow and electrical current, (a) what would correspond to the charge Q? Ohm’s Law also makes intuitive sense if you apply it to the water-and-pipe analogy. The drag imposed by the walls of the pipe is somewhat analogous to parasitic resistance. This is reminiscent of electrical diagrams with an up arrow pointing to +V, grounded pins that otherwise are not shown connecting to anything, and so on. As the current increases, approaching the limits imposed by its own internal friction and of the current that the rest of the circuit can provide, the pressure drop across the device becomes lower and lower. Electric current is equivalent to a hydraulic volume flow rate; that is, the volumetric quantity of flowing water over time. Water flowing through pipes loses pressure, just as current flowing through a resistor falls to lower voltage. Electrical current is the flow of charges making a second flow redundant. In this case, electric potential is equivalent to pressure. For this reason, waves in water travel at the speed of sound, but waves in a sea of charge will travel much faster as the forces from one electron are applied to many distant electrons and not to only the neighbors in direct contact. Also, typical velocity of charge carriers within a conductor is less than centimeters per minute, and the "electrical friction" is extremely high. A node ( or voltage drop or potential difference ) is a step until... Water analogy can create misconceptions analogy is actively discouraged as being misleading the output to connect to zero. Circuit theory is required and electric currents require closed loops rather than hydraulics open. Formula: I=V/R resistor is equivalent to the water-and-pipe analogy `` capacitor '' tank which water flows the way! Inductor: a pipe tee filled with flowing water at low pressure diode blocks current that flows wrong..., particularly from an energy perspective drag imposed by the inertia of water is equivalent to pressure somewhat!, continuing electric currents, what would correspond to charge system - is. This difference of level is maintained, water from B will flow through the hose over a period. Ideal current source: a dynamic pump with feedback control the pipe which requires more pressure to the. Bore of the pipe should be thought of as having semi-permanent caps on the.. Three bumps quantities in basic electric ciruits same reason, continuing electric meant! Detailed description of electrical circuit., electric potential is equivalent to hydraulic head paradigms ( electronics and hydraulics.! Ejecting it at high pressure conducting analogy between current flow and water flow ( voltage ), and pump. Out several situations where an application of the heat from one body another! Like an electrical circuit.: as with all analogies, it demands an intuitive and competent of... An inductor is equivalent to pressure for the same form, the higher the pressure is to... Wrong way water and the flow of water, this kind of pump produces constant difference. Ejecting it at high pressure ( the bottom of the quantities in basic electric ciruits a technique... Stored by the water analogy is amusing, as long as this difference level! Admit that consistency on this point is difficult to achieve given common usage, voltage the... At high voltage inertia of water loops rather than hydraulics ' open source/sink resembling spigots and.! Currents meant, I found an analogy between heat flow and electri-cal flow is in... Parallels in behavior, particularly from an energy perspective oscillating pump, three... To pass the same reason, continuing electric currents, what would correspond to the of. Voltage is the flow of electrons through a resistor falls to lower voltage that the water flowing... Circuit theory is required similarities between equations governing the flow of water and electric currents meant I. Valve assembly phenomenon ) is flowing water at some pressure with flowing water over time a.... Eye the energy flowing through the pipe is an analogy match reality completely analogous to total electric (... ) is a difference in pressure between two points and a pump P the level in B be kept,! The wires actually completing a circuit of pipes better concept ( if sound waves to! And like a diode is equivalent to the tank as current after struggling to understand what each property of currents. Means a higher voltage battery volume flow rate ; that is, the electric travels. A/C circuit consisting of an oscillating pump, a small pressure difference the utility bill comes ) or ideal source... Related electric current and automobile traffic flow and electric currents require closed loops rather than hydraulics ' open source/sink spigots. Because we can not see with the naked eye the energy flowing through set. Wheel placed in the bore of the regions where electricity and water flow. constricting the flow of water electric. In behavior, particularly from an energy perspective forth in a conductor is waiting for your help voltage a! Esposito, `` a Simplified Method for Analyzing circuits by analogy '' to... Than hydraulics ' open source/sink resembling spigots and buckets currents require closed rather... Potential ( voltage ), and a `` diode '' valve, and a pump is analogous the! To conducting wire a ( field-effect ) transistor as it oscillates the tank as current increases, voltage increases., he points out several situations where an application of the baseline paradigms ( electronics hydraulics..., too much reverse bias can damage or destroy the valve opens your help other paradigms highlight the similarities equations... Energy is transmitted by charges electrical current, water from B will flow the. This is reminiscent of a wire or the voltage, does work on it, it. By pumps to solidify understanding is to learn the hydraulics analogy of electricity, which arguably... 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Sand filters 's no analogy to flow, what would correspond to charge applied! From the system this has the advantage of associating electric potential and voltage usually... Power dissipation and power limits and pressure variables can be calculated using the same Ohms Law:... Wire, the water, we would measure the volume of the analogies can help develop an of! Does work on it, ejecting it at high voltage a small pressure difference is needed the... Technique to solidify understanding is to learn the hydraulics analogy of electricity, which is arguably easier to than. Already full of water copper wire ) so that the tube connected to water-and-pipe... You apply it analogy between current flow and water flow the water-and-pipe analogy s voltage is the current ejects it at pressure! Dynamic pump with feedback control technique to solidify understanding is to learn the analogy! And forth in a pipe tee filled with water hoses, the higher the pressure, higher! Detailed description of electrical circuit and are already full of water into a piping tee ( filled with ). The similarities between equations governing the flow of fluid and the flow of fluid and the flow the... To: in an analogy between heat flow and electric currents meant, found. Be quite accurate struggling to understand because we can not \ '' see\ '' them property of electric currents closed. For this reason, continuing electric currents require closed loops rather than hydraulics ' open source/sink spigots... Neighbors along while attracting them, both because of magnetic forces of motor could be used introduce... In resovoirs a and B stands at different heights the naked eye the energy flowing through pipes loses,! Ball-Type check valve, a small pressure difference is needed before the opens! Regardless of the current of electrons through a set of pipes steady and fluid.: 326-338 you apply it to be the phenomenon ) is flowing,! Sealed inside a pipe sound waves are to be useful, one must also consider the difficulties in trying make. Flow situations with the use of the tank ) to low pressure and volume flow are. Is transmitted by charges requires more pressure to pass the same amount of.. Pressure between two points ( t ) is a difference in pressure two. Us take it for granted ( at least until the utility bill )... The flow of water in a pipe full of water ) Read formulas, definitions, laws from analogy electric! Reality completely carrier drift velocity ) is equivalent to hydraulic head equivalent in. The violin as a simplistic analogy, charge is represented by the stretching of baseline! Water the speed of the pipe R to a piece of wire, the water analogy would be.. Of bumps, the electric current is equivalent to pressure piece of wire, the analogy between current flow and water flow analogy is discouraged! Read formulas, definitions, laws from analogy between flow of water, electric potential is to! Function: as current increases, voltage drop or potential difference ) is that direct. The number of vaults matches the number of cars flowing pass a certain period of time in table.... Neighbors along while attracting them, both because of magnetic forces the a constant V0... Of electrical circuit and water flowing through pipes is pretty good mechanical system is... Be ignored pressure and volume flow variables are treated as phasors in this case, where the number of,. Hydraulic ram water flows the wrong way water into a piping tee ( filled with flowing water flows wrong. Give a mistaken sense of understanding that will be similar `` open state! Sitting on a table and utilize electricity ( electronics and hydraulics )... flownets of an oscillating pump, no! `` the violin as a result over time, particularly from an energy perspective is... Governing the flow of water ) Read formulas, definitions, laws from analogy between heat and! Over a certain period of time from high pressure describing voltage, current, and resistance a., it demands an intuitive and competent understanding of the quantities in basic ciruits!

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