Before we get into the specifics, let us clarify some things regarding Erasmus and his 3rd Edition. Still, for all that, Erasmus' had made a Greek New Testament available to scholars throughout Western Europe for the first time in ages. Among these Greek manuscripts was only 1 poor copy of Revelation, which did not even include Revelation 22:16-21. The second and sometimes overlooked factor, however, is the variety of ways that the Latin influenced the final form of the TR and the KJV. The second edition used the more familiar term Testamentum instead of Instrumentum, and eventually became a major source for Luther's German translation. What manuscripts did people use to create the New International Version (NIV) of the Bible and the King James Version (KJV)? He was actually producing a new Latin translation that he hoped would replace the Latin Vulgate. Around 1511, the Dutch Catholic humanist, Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536), began working on an edition and Latin translation of the Greek New Testament, for which he thoroughly compared the text of several Greek manuscripts with Jerome's fourth-century Latin translation of the Bible, the so-called Vulgate. #1 TC, Oct 4, 2004. Each differs very slightly from the others. His first edition was published in 1516. “Erasmus omitted the passage from the first printed Greek Testament of 1516, but undertook to introduce the words if a Greek manuscript containing them could be produced. He was faced with a late manuscript which did in fact contain the passage, and against his judgment kept his promise. However presumably as his text underwent several revisions after that, and then became the basis of the versions produced by Stephanus, Beza and the Elzavirs, and ultimately the KJV almost a century later, more scholarship was done and more manuscripts were brought in. Let us recognize the blessing we have in such a vast treasure of biblical witnesses and be faithful to wisely use what God has given us, just as the translators before us did with what was given to them. So, in this case, the KJV translators' choice to follow the Latin over the Greek proved to be a solid deduction. Come arrivare a Monamour Sexyshop in Bus? But they do not use the “original manuscripts.” (If you get nothing else from this article – get this – we do not have the “originals”.) They waited instead to complete an Old Testament text and publish both together as a complete Bible, which was published in the early 1520s. These “Annotations” included information on which manuscripts he acquired certain readings from. Rather, it is a series of 16th-century printed texts which were, in turn, based on the critical examination of a handful of (mostly late) Greek manuscripts. Some of the manuscripts (as in common in ancient texts) were damaged in places. Theodore Beza occasionally reconstructed texts to accord with the Latin rather than the Greek when the Latin reading made more sense to him. At any rate, very few changes were made in the fourth and fifth editions. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", and has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". The manuscripts he used were copies of copies of copies of copies of copies. Critics are quick to seize upon this "flaw" of the Textus Receptus to deride the KJV. At the outset, I wish to thank Robert Paul Wieland for much of the information in this article and for his assistance with the Latin translations. They very openly supported the superiority of the Latin text, which inevitably affected which readings they preferred in certain places. The Online Masterclass Gift Subscription – Buy It Here. Juni 2016): Structure and History of the Biblical Manuscripts Used by Erasmus for His 1516 Edition. And in 1516, a publisher in the city of Basel, Switzerland, named Froben published the first-ever critical edition of the New Testament, which Erasmus had edited." For his second edition (1519), Erasmus' gained access to Minuscule 33, a 9th Century copy of the New Testament that was nearly complete, though it lacked the entire book of Revelation and had some damage in the gospels. There are many variants between the Erasmus text and the copies he consulted which he did not include in his notes. click, Contact | Facebook | Twitter | Store | Radio | Copying and Linking | Statement of Faith | The Warning TractCARM, PO BOX 1353, Nampa ID 83653 | 385-246-1048 | firstname.lastname@example.orgHosting by EverythingsA.com Powered by the Connectivity.Engineer Network, Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry, CARM, PO BOX 1353, Nampa ID 83653 | 385-246-1048. This Codex has been dated to the early 1500s, which is why many believe it was made specifically for Erasmus to justify his inclusion of the Comma. All of these are medieval manuscripts ranging in date from the 12th to the 15th century (most closer to the 12th or 13th). Ziggy Active Member. The first manuscripts were copied onto either papyrus (ancient paper) or parchment ... Estienne’s New Testament is remarkably similar to Erasmus’ Greek New Testament, but Estienne claimed he didn’t use Erasmus’ work as a source. In every book of the New Testament he compared three or four manuscripts, except the last book, Book of Revelation. Working with all the speed he could, Erasmus did not even transcribe the manuscripts; he merely … The story goes that a manuscript was quickly produced and given to Erasmus who reluctantly included it in his 3rd and subsequent editions. What is Erasmus most famous work? Would love your thoughts, please comment. In the 3rd edition and following of Erasmus’ Annotations he comments on the fact that he used 2 manuscripts to include the Comma. Like Erasmus’ work, it was also a collation of many manuscripts available during that time. If he did, did he make use of them? There have been over 500 printings. Good job! A: During the three and one-half centuries since the King James Version was made dozens of manuscripts have been found that were copied many centuries earlier than any manuscript used by Erasmus. The Hispanic Codex is believed to be the Complutensian Polyglot. Erasmus didn’t have a complete manuscript of the New Testament in Greek. Some believe that it was copied from a manuscript that did not include the Comma, which they claim was added from the Latin. In other cases, such as Matt 18:11, an additional verse from the parallel passage in another gospel was added in. Originally trained as a Catholic priest, Erasmus was an important figure in classical scholarship who wrote in a pure Latin style. Wasn't the Textus Receptus based on just a few manuscripts? He says: "Did Erasmus use other manuscripts beside these five in preparing his Textus Receptus? What Greek mss did Erasmus use when collated his Greek text that later became known as the textus receptus (TR)? Five editions of Novum Instrumentum omne were published, although its title was changed to Novum Testamentum omne with the second edition, and the name continued. Only in the early 13th century did teachers and students at the University of Paris begin to employ the standardised system of chapter numbering that we now use. Most famously, in Revelation 16:5 where both the Greek and the Latin texts clearly said "O Lord, which art, and wast, the Holy One," Beza speculated that the original reading was really "O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be," in keeping with the formula used elsewhere (Revelation 1:4, 8; 4:8). How many manuscripts did Erasmus have to work with? If those Greek NT manuscripts were "whole," why was there any need for textual physicians or editors such as Erasmus, Cardinal Ximenes, Stephanus, or Beza? Because Erasmus was not planning on publishing the Greek alongside his Latin edition, he only had access to 7 Greek manuscripts which were available in Basel. When material is copied a number of times by hand, extra words and phrases generally find their way into the text in … Stephanus treated the Complutensian text as a manuscript, listing its variant readings alongside those of other texts he consulted. What new Renaissance artistic technique, partly revived from classical times, did Leonardo da Vinci use? This is the so called Comma Johanneum, “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.” (KJV) Despite being accepted as Scripture by Christians for millenia, Erasmus did not include it because he could not find it among any of the Greek manuscripts he had examined. He became proficient in Latin and at this school, for the first time Greek was taught at a lower level than university. Erasmus produced the Greek Text to justify his changes from the Vulgate. For example, the main manuscript that Erasmus used for the Gospels contained both the story of the woman taken in adultery in John and the last twelve verses of Mark, passages that did not originally form part of the Gospels. Thus, a few verses in Erasmus are not based on any Greek manuscripts at all but are rather his best estimation of what the Greek said based on the Latin. He was orphaned at the age of 9 and was raised in a monastic school run by the clergy. It is true that Erasmus had in his actual possession only a few Greek manuscripts when he composed the first edition of his Greek New Testament, but he had examined a large number of other manuscripts, both Latin and Greek, and he had compared these with many ancient Bible translations and with a large number of quotations from ancient church leaders. Within these editions, Stephanus expanded the available data for scholars and translators to use. Erasmus was the author of five published editions from 1516 to 1535, the 1516 edition being the very first Textus Receptus. a single manuscript, minuscule 1r (now numbered 2814 according to the new Gregory-Aland number).2 This manuscript, however, lacks the final verses of the book, and in order to have a complete text, Erasmus retranslated these verses into Greek from the Latin. On which New Testament manuscripts did the KJV translators rely. One is that the TR was based on a relatively small collection of mostly late Greek manuscripts which were often not selected systematically but rather because they were all the manuscripts available to the men doing the collecting. Erasmus, a 15th-century Dutch theologian, working at great speed in order to beat to press another Greek New Testament being prepared in Spain, gathered together what hand-copied Greek manuscripts he could locate. Erasmus also contributed to the Reformation by calling for reform in the Church through his various satirical works. The Greek Textus Receptus underlying the KJV was first edited by Desiderius Erasmus and published in 1516. For example, in 1 John 2:23, every printed Greek text the KJV translators had in front of them read "Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father," and the verse stopped there. Please also list and name the specific, exact textual measures that you would assert were actually used by Erasmus, Cardinal Ximenes, Stephanus, Beza, and others in the making of the printed Textus Receptus editions. Beza's speculation made sense at the time, given just how little manuscript data he had on the book of Revelation, but since then we have discovered numerous copies that confirm that Beza got this one wrong. In: Wallraff, Martin ; Seidel Menchi, Silvana ; Greyerz, Kaspar von (Hrsg. The Complutensian Polyglot was a printed text from the early 16th century that was produced entirely independently of Erasmus' efforts. The humanist mantra during this medieval period was the Latin, ad fontes, or “back to the sources.”Erasmus’ greatest achievement, with respect to the coming Protestant Reformation, was his work on developing an authoritative Greek text … I think it’s the latter. Erasmus didn’t have a complete manuscript of the New Testament in Greek. Thus, Beza brought in several readings from outside the Greek manuscript tradition and introduced them into the TR. I have no reason to doubt that figure. The manuscript to which Erasmus refers at the end of this passage is the Codex Vaticanus pat excellence, now Gr 1209, designated as B40 Erasmus regarded the text of this codex as influenced by the Vulgate and therefore inferior. Erasmus used several Greek manuscript sources because he did not have access to a single complete manuscript. The editions of Stephens, Beza and the Elzevirs all present substantially the same text, and the variations are not of gr… However, Erasmus by no means had access to all of the Greek manuscripts, so there was no way he could develop a true Majority Text. It is estimated that he may have used six texts—none of them very old and only one of them complete.  True, he did not rely consistently on more than a few manuscripts in establishing his text of the New Testament, and the ones he chose to follow were not the best available to him. This article seeks to address a more specific aspect of the wager theory; that Codex Montfortianus was the manuscript produced specifically so Erasmus would include the Comma in his 3rd Edition of his Greek New Testament. Remember, that was in the days before closed circuit TV, fax machines, email, Federal Express, jumbo jets, etc. The Textus Receptus KJV only. Beza continued to refine the Greek New Testament text based on the manuscript data Stephanus provided in his notes, as well as some additional texts that Beza had available to him, the most notable of which is a sixth-century, Codex Claromontanus, though Beza seems to have scarcely used it. Thus, for his first edition, Erasmus had three copies of the Gospels to compare, three of Acts, four of Paul's letters, two of the other New Testament letters, and only one for the Book of Revelation. This explains why the Textus Receptus is very similar to the Majority Text. Beza's primary work was not that of supplying new manuscript data but rather of critically examining the data that his predecessors had provided. It is also noteworthy that none of the manuscripts used by Erasmus' were older than the 10th century, and even the one 10th-century manuscript he had he scarcely used as it differed most from the others. It is commonly known that Erasmus did not include a large section of 1 John 5:7 in the 1st and 2nd Editions of his Greek New Testament. He also ignored much older and better manuscripts that were at his disposal. MATT SLICK LIVE RADIOCall in with your questions at 877-207-22763-4pm PST; 4-5pm MST; 6-7pm ESTWatch on FacebookPast Shows Radio PodcastRadio Show SurveySubscribe to CARM Radio, CARM wishlistWant to help CARM in a different way? Verse numbers would make there way into the English tradition through the Geneva Bible (1560) and, from there, into subsequent translations like the KJV. (For a long time, this manuscript was simply referred to as manuscript 1r.) From the beginning, some of the readings that became a lasting part of the TR tradition were Erasmus' translations from the Latin in places where he had no Greek text. Check out Chris Thomas’ post here for more information. It was a reading they found only in the Latin. 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